Rss Feed Tweeter button Facebook button Delicious button Digg button Flickr button Newsvine button Youtube button
Get Adobe Flash player


Rabies is an acute infectious disease of animals caused by viruses neurotrophic of ss RNA viruses; genus Lyssavirus; family Rhabdoviridae. Rabies virus is included in the serotypes 1, serotypes 2 (Lagos bat virus), serotype 3 (Mokola rhabdovirus), and serotype 4 (Duvenge rhabdovirus).
Rabies attacks the central nervous system of warm-blooded animals and humans. Zoonosis that can be transmitted to humans via bites or scratches. or can be wound through the saliva of animals affected with rabies-infected animal can turn into more aggressive / violent and may attack humans .. Rabies is very dangerous, if found clinical symptoms and treatment is usually followed by death are not true, either in animals or humans.

Signs of Rabies Disease In Animals And Humans
In animals, rabies disease can be divided into two forms, namely the form of silent / quiet (Dumb Rabies) and malignant forms (Furious Rabies).
Sign – a sign of silent forms Rabies / quiet (Dumb Rabies):

Like to hide in a dark and cool.
Paralysis of the body, animals can not chew and swallow food, the lower jaw clenched and can not drool excessively.
Seizures are often short and sometimes not visible.
There is no desire to attack or bite. Death will occur within several hours.

Sign – a sign of rabies malignant form (Furious Rabies):

Animals become hostile, aggressive and no longer by their owners.
Out excessive salivation, loss of appetite, the voice becomes hoarse
Attacking and biting anything that is encountered.
When standing his stiff, curved tail down between his thighs behind her stomach.
Puppy to become more agile and playful, but when held will bite and become malignant in a few hours.
Convulsions and paralysis, usually die 4-7 days after onset of symptoms or a maximum of 12 days after the bite.

In ruminants, clinical signs of rabies is characterized animal becomes agitated, nervous, wild and itching on the body, there is paralysis in the hind legs and eventually the animal will die.
Signs of Rabies in Humans

The early stage of rabies is difficult to know, so it should be noted a history of animal bite transmitting rabies as dogs, cats and monkeys.
Symptoms arise lethargy, loss of appetite, nausea, high fever, headache, and could not sleep.
Pain in the scar where the bite and seemed in pain as well as being nervous, frivolous talk, and always wanted to move
Fear of excessive water, loud noises and light sensitive, and air.
Saliva and tears out redundant, dilated pupils.
Convulsions and paralysis and eventually died. Usually the patient died 4-6 days after the symptoms / signs first arise.

Rabies can be done based on clinical symptoms and examination histophatologis brain tissue (hippocampus, cortex, medulla oblongata), DFA test of the skin tissue, skin biopsy of the sensory vibrissae of the maxillary area, including the deepest subcutaneous hair follicles. ELISA, antibodimonoklonal identification, isolation of biologically in experimental animals and identification of the virus by serological tests such as FAT, immunoperoxide, VN, and FAVN.
Differential diagnosis
Animals suspected of rabies must be carefully and thoughtfully when monitoring / observation, when dogs and cats show behavioral changes or neurological symptoms of unknown cause. Neurological symptoms can sometimes be caused by neurological disease – a brain tumor, viral encephalitis, head injury, laryngeal paralysis, and pseudorabies virus infection.
Modes of Transmission
All warm-blooded animals susceptible to rabies and potentially transmit rabies to humans. Animals which are commonly spread of rabies are dogs, cats, bats, monkeys, and wild carnivores. More than 90% of cases of human rabies transmitted by dogs.
In animals with rabies, the virus contained in the central nervous system and are found with large quantities in saliva. The virus is transmitted to other animals or to humans through the bite wound an animal with rabies and affected animals or human saliva with rabies.
The incubation period of rabies in animal disease occur approximately 2 weeks (10 days – 8 weeks) after the bite of rabid animals. While in humans 2-3 weeks to 1 year, depending on the location of the bite wound (is much close to the central nervous system injury), the number of nerves around the bite wound on, pathogenitas and the number of viruses that enter through the bite wound, the number of bite wounds, as well as in and severity of the bite wound
Animal Rabies Cases Patient Handling
A person who is bitten by an animal with rabies treatment should be dealt with as quickly and as soon as mungin, it aims to reduce the effects and lethal rabies virus enters the body through the bite wound:

The most effective efforts to do is to immediately wash the bite wound with clean water and soap or detergent for 5-10 minutes under running water / flush. Then dry with a clean cloth ..
Antiseptic wound (wound medications available such as betadine, iodine, alcohol 70%, iodine tincture or other) and then wrapped with a clean bandage.
Patients with bite wounds should be immediately taken to the doctor, health center or the nearest hospital for treatment and care while further, pending the results of observations of animals suspected of rabies.
Although it has been done washing the bite wound, the patient should be washed back wound at the health center or hospital.
Bite wounds bandaged loosely sewn and not justified, except in very severe injuries. If the state had to do sewing, then it should be given anti-rabies serum (SAR) according to dose, other than that considered whether or not anti-tetanus vaccine, as well as antibiotics and analgesics.

Animals – animals that bite humans and suspected of having rabies, it must be taken the following actions:

Animals that bite should be captured and reported to relevant agencies (Department of Animal Husbandry and Agriculture) to be observed and checked his health for 10-14 days.
If you die in the observation of the dog’s head was sent to a laboratory for diagnostic certainty the cause of death. But if the negative observations of animal rabies is still alive, then the animal vaccinated against rabies
Animal was injected post-observation and rabies, can be returned to its owner. If the owner is unknown (wild animals), the animal may be destroyed or given to people who are interested in maintaining.
When the elusive animals that bite, then it must be killed and his head taken for laboratory examination.
If the biting animal can not be found, then the person who suffered bites to be taken to a special hospital.

In animals there is no effective treatment, so that if a positive diagnosis of rabies, is indicated to death / euthanasia. While humans can do the Pasteur treatment, providing VARs and SAR in accordance with standard operating procedures (SOPs).